2009年5月28日 星期四

怒海孤舟──黃雀行動與我

二十年前的那個夜晚,無數同胞的心靈被槍彈洞穿,被坦克輾碎。我目睹了長街上的殺戮,目睹了天安門廣場的最後時刻,撕心裂肺的疼痛之後,竟是萬念俱灰的幻滅,就是那瞬間我決定了後半生的路向。二十年來我都沒有披露投奔怒海的詳情,我寫的六四回憶錄凡言及黃雀行動,都用假托地點與人名。今見《蘋果日報》首度報道內情,多位當事人亦公開現身說法,我便說說自己的故事。六四之後我和作家劉心武倉卒離開兇城北京,南下避禍,蟄伏於山區十餘日,劉終被電召回京參加「清查」。七月間,一位交情甚篤的香港友人忽來找我,告知有一作家遁來廣東亟待營救,他帶來照片讓我確認。我一看,正是被當局通緝的七名知識分子之一蘇曉康!友人只是港商,不知應該如何運作,我也徬徨無計,便讓他回港找劉達文,劉一定能和支聯會聯繫上。未幾,黃雀行動便有回應。我依安排到東莞虎門與蘇曉康會合,與黃雀接頭細節一如《蘋果日報》所述。我們被安排到一間空置村舍等了兩天,黃雀來告:今晚上船,船上是現役軍人,你們不必害怕,是自己人。是夜登船,是一艘高速快艇。夜色中看去船上六七名軍人似是武警。我和蘇曉康還有一位掩護他的人被塞進船艙,旋即快艇顛簸着直奔外海。艙裏機聲轟隆,我們蜷縮其間,完全不知外面曾發生槍戰。直至到達安全水域艙門才打開。軍人們都穿着斗篷雨衣,看不清面孔,及至登岸前夕才有一名操普通話的軍人鑽進船艙,說他們都是為了民族大義而冒死做這件事,問我們能不能寫下自己真實名字,萬一將來他們也要逃亡,也好告訴香港政府他們曾經營救過甚麼人。我這才知道對方完全不曉得我們是誰,便感動得熱淚盈眶地寫下姓名(幾年後才聞說此次行動還有女兵,而且發生槍戰,船上有人受傷)。黃雀已在登岸處等候,然後驅車進城。此前我來過兩次香港,認出是旺角。到了一間寫字樓,見到人稱六哥的陳達鉦,而開車接我們的就是他的兄弟七哥。稍候片刻,朱耀明牧師便來將我們接走,送到劉千石家住了一晚。由於情況多變,其後我們轉移了多處住所。《蘋果日報》報道的那幾個庇護屋,我全都住過。先住沙田一間公寓,業主是民運支持者,無償把寓所交支聯會使用。所有六四流亡者都要藏匿行蹤,不得拋頭露面,但因營救我們的費用是支聯會和香港學聯各負擔一部份,所以香港學聯代表要見我們一面,於是在沙田某酒家我初次見到了香港學聯的蔡耀昌。之後蘇曉康迅速離港赴法,我再被轉移到西貢庇護屋。記得那晚是中秋節,車上有朱牧師和劉千石,途中會合另一人。來者和我握手問候,他就是何俊仁。我在香港滯留四個多月,直到美國開始接受六四流亡者,我在等候赴美期間才離開庇護營地住到劉達文家。在劉家我開始寫歷史紀實《血路 1989》,並有了出門自由,我去見了老朋友羅海星的太太作家周蜜蜜,那時羅海星已因黃雀行動事敗而被捕。還記得支聯會給我一個應急電話號碼,萬一出門遇警察盤問,即致電此人。他就是《蘋果日報》報道提到的那位警司。八九年十二月,我離開香港赴美,迄今已二十年。往事歷歷,時至今日,我最想說的一句話就是──感謝香港市民,你們沒有忘記六四,歷史也不會忘記你們所做的一切。

孔捷生

2009年5月19日 星期二

Rethinking the rules of citizenship

Rethinking the rules of citizenship

We Canadians don't wear our patriotism on our sleeve. Instead, we quietly stick the maple leaf on our luggage when travelling abroad – not as a badge of honour, but to avoid being mistaken as Americans.
Nationalism is not our thing. But our disdain for jingoism shouldn't stop us from rethinking citizenship in today's world: what it means to aspiring Canadians, and what we want it to mean.
We need not take a vow of silence about the oath of citizenship.
Citizenship and Immigration Minister Jason Kenney has been raising eyebrows with his public musings about rewriting the rules of citizenship, by tweaking the test new citizens take. He asks ethnic audiences whether we are all on the same wavelength, or even speak the same (official) language, when it comes to citizenship.
"We want to make sure that people have a basic knowledge of our political institutions, our democratic traditions, our values, what some people call civic literacy," Kenney said recently.
It's hardly surprising he's making waves a mari usque ad mare. We live in hyper-politicized times and Kenney is a fierce partisan whose motives are often suspect. Are the Conservatives upsetting our multicultural apple cart by playing wedge politics?
Interestingly, there's been no evident backlash from the ethnic audiences that Kenney meets. Possibly, many of the new Canadians who hear him out, and who are fiercely proud of their chosen citizenship, don't want it taken for granted by newcomers.
Many Canadians romanticize the traditional story of immigrants who arrive with a few dollars in their pockets, soon find jobs, build businesses and bolster the economy. We tend to gloss over what novelist Yann Martel dubbed the Canadian hotel – a place where citizens of the world check in and check out without putting down roots.
Against that backdrop, Kenney is raising good questions. He points out that lacking basic English or French makes it that much harder to function in today's knowledge economy. New citizens are supposed to have basic proficiency in English or French (children and anyone older than 54 are exempted). He wants citizenship judges to stop turning a blind eye to applicants who don't meet the language standard, and laments that only about one-quarter of newcomers enrol in available classes.
And Kenney wants to stress equality of the sexes – the implication being that some immigrants are oblivious to it. If we can proclaim such truisms in our Charter of Rights, what's wrong with posing the equality question in our citizenship exams?
Future citizens should also know more about our past. The current study booklet devotes generous space to recycling, but says little about Canada's military history, Kenney argues.
Getting Canadians – English or French – to agree on shared values (and distinct societies) has tripped up many a politician. So Kenney should tread carefully. Politicians in Australia, Britain and even the Netherlands who tried to restate their national values in a post-9/11 world only seemed to stoke suspicion of "outsiders."
The Dutch famously came up with an orientation video for migrants that showed two gay men kissing and a topless woman on the beach – a thinly veiled attempt to poke conservative Muslim immigrants in the eye.
The experience of Australia's former right-wing government offers a cautionary tale for Kenney. Their new citizenship test included gratuitous references to "mateship" and sportsmanship, asking applicants to name one of the country's cricket stars. The new Labour government has promised to fix the tests – but not drop them entirely. Interestingly, Labour has opted to retain a controversial "Australian Values Statement" that all migrants must sign.
Kenney will no doubt be mindful of those missteps Down Under as he attempts to define – or redefine – the True North. Sticky wickets are best avoided in both cricket matches and citizenship tests.


Martin Regg Cohn, the Star's deputy editorial page editor, writes Tuesday.